Communist Party of India

  • The heroic struggle of the Communist Part of India had been marked by the ‘The Bhoodan Movement’.
  • The science of Marxism-Leninism is being applied in the Indian society by the Communist Party of India.

The Communist Party of India (CPI) was officially formed on 26th December, 1925 at the first party conference in Kanpur. The party, however, got divided into two in the year 1965 because they had ideological balance.

Splitting of the Party

Few members decided to work independently, organizing the peasants and industrial workers and formed a new party known as Communist Party of India (Marxist). In the beginning the CPI (M) party was smaller than that of the CPI party because people supported the CPI (M) party more than the CPI. In the later years the CPI (M) grew bigger with the support of the people.

The Bhoodan Movement

CPI (M) is stronger in places like Kerala, West Bengal, Tripura, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh whereas CPI is stronger in places like Maharashtra, Bihar, Haryana, Punjab etc. Telangana armed struggle ‘The Bhoodan Movement’ symbolizes one of the most heroic of such struggles led by the Communist Party of India.

Applying Marxism-Leninism in the Indian Scenario

According to communist writers and thinkers, the goal of communism is to create a casteless, classless society, free from exploitation and oppression. They operated to popularize the ideas of socialism, and made the first efforts to apply the science of Marxism-Leninism to Indian conditions and problems.

Founders of the CPI

The founder of the Communist Party of India were―M.N.Roy, Abani Mukherjee, Evelyn Trent Roy who was M.N. Roy’s wife, Mohammad Ali, Mohammad Siddiqui. As per its constitution, CPI (M) has a general secretary, and not a president.

Popular Leaders in CPI (M)

The current general secretary, Sitaram Yechury, was elected by the newly formed Central Committee in the 21st party congress held at Visakhapatnam in 2015. Other prominent leaders are Prakash Karat, S Ramachandran Pillai, Biman Basu, Manik Sarkar, Pinarayi Vijayan, Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee, etc. The Politburo is the highest body of the CPI (M). The members of the Politburo are elected by the Central Committee of National Party Congress. After the 7th party congress meeting the Central Secretariat was renamed as the politburo.

The Mass Organizations of the Party

The CPI (M) has a number of principal mass organizations like its labor wing called Centre of Indian Trade Unions (CITU). The All India Kissan Sabha (AIKS) is the peasant wing, whereas the SFI or the Students Federation of India is the student wing. The youth organization is known as the Democratic Youth Federation of India (DYFI).

The Election Symbol of the Party

Communist Party of India party symbol, as approved by the Election Commission of India has a hammer and a sickle, intersecting each other. This is usually depicted on a red-colored flag, which is the color of struggle symbolizing any communist party. They are essentially agricultural tools and weapons. It depicts that the CPI (M) is a party of the peasants, of farmers, or laborers, who work in the fields and earn a living. The CPI (M) made its strong presence felt in the states of West Bengal and Tripura where it is part of the Left Front and in Kerala as part of the Left Democratic Front.


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