India and China both are the two major countries in the Asia-Pacific region, and the political backdrop shows that in 1950 India became the first non-socialist country to establish relations with the People’s Republic of China.
The Commercial and Economic relations started majorly in 2003 by when the trade between the two countries were of on an average 3Billion. In 2003 then Prime Minister of India, Shri. Atal Bihari Vajpayee visited China and signed various pacts in different sectors like defence, agriculture, space, science etc. in the backdrop of these pacts the trade between China and India increased by 73.9 billion.
The Cultural relations between India and China existed date back in 1500-1000BC. The most evident factor claims that India’s Vedic civilization and China’s Shang Zhou civilization have some similar exchanges with religious point of view.
Characteristics of India-China Relations
Both India-China are two great civilizations whose relationship dates to almost two millenniums back. There had been the exchange of cultural, intellectual and trade activities.
Silk Road acted as a major route for trade exchange. India also interest many Chinese scholars as many of them had come to India gaining knowledge about Universities like Nalanda and Takshila.
It was from that the religion like Buddhism and its teachings and the other teachings of medicinal science and astronomy got propagated in Western China.
Modern Day Relationship of Indo-China
The formal set up of modern day relations between India and China got a formal stage post India’s Independence. In 1950, India was the among first countries to end formal ties with the Republic of China and acknowledge the People’s Republic of China (PRC) as the legitimate government of Mainland China.
A formal Treaty was signed by both India-China named Panchsheel Treaty, in early 1954 which were in view to act as guiding principles for relationships between the two nations.
There were set principles over which the Treaty was based that were decided upon to act as founding principles for mutual peaceful co-existence of both the Nations.
. Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty.
. Mutual non-aggression.
. Mutual non-interference in each other’s internal affairs.
. Equality and co-operation for mutual benefit.
Many skirmishes had rifted border disputes, resulting in three military conflicts- the Sino Indian war of 1962, the Chola incident in 1967 and the 1987 Sino-Indian skirmish. The most recent clashes at the border of both the countries is much talked and hyped Doklam standoff in 2017 for 73 days which marked another border dispute between these two regional powers.
Fastest Growing Major Economies
The two most populous nations India and China distinguishes themselves as the fastest growing major economies in the world and the extract of the respective individual growth diplomatically as well as economically has had a deeper influence and has increased the significance of their bilateral relationships.
Since 1980s both the nations have rebuilt economic and diplomatic relations and by 2008 China became India’s largest trade partner and the current ratings of trade between India and China stands at almost 25$ USD. The mutual obligations of the two nations for each other were witnessed at formal global forums like Climate Change, Trade and Global finance order.
Challenges put forward (India-China)
The growing economic and strategic ties also set targeted hurdles for India and the People’s Republic of China to overcome. The repeated Chinese incursions into Indian Territory and the debacle of the attempt of the two countries to address and resolve their border disputes makes India in an acceptance position about the trade imbalance heavily in favour of China.
India also remains wary about the strengthened strategic bilateral relations of China with Pakistan, while China has raised concerns about Indian military and economic activities in the disputed South China Sea.
The two nations are emerging global and regional superpowers in Trade and military prowess which assures the relations between the two countries strained by some of the action and attempts of China where China’s vehement opposition to India’s potential membership in the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG), building CPEC (China-Pakistan Economic Corridor) which is a part of its OBOR (One Belt One Road) project which is strictly opposed by India due to its violative nature harming India’s sovereign integrity.
Both growing superpowers command respect and power in the region. China attempts to establish itself in Indian Ocean by string of pearls theory in view of getting control at Hambantota port, Gwadar port etc.
Mutual trust and cooperation to grow together is the solution for regional and mutual peace.