Goa was part of Portuguese colonies till 1961 AD and it was under direct control of Portugal before 451 years from 1510 AD.
The Indian Government, after getting the independence from British rule in 1947, tried to take the control of Goa through negotiation with Portuguese government. In 1948 AD, The Prime Minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru brought up the demand of Goa’s inclusion with India but the Portuguese was not keen for the negotiation. Again, in 1953 AD, Indian government delegation wanted to discuss the issue with Portuguese in Portugal but it was also refused. Indian government tried through United Nations channel too but there was no positive outcome. The Portuguese were not willing to leave Goa in spite of repeated requests from India.
After multiple failed attempts to negotiate the territorial issue, Indian government finally decided to deploy Indian forces to evict Portuguese out of Goa. Indian Army started the preparation in the beginning of December 1961. Major General K. P. Candeth was deputed with 17 Infantry Division and other Para military forces to head the Indian operation to liberate Goa from Portuguese. On 17th December 1961, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru ordered the Indian Military to invade Goa. Indian army with Indian Air Force and the Indian Navy started the “Operation Vijay” and easily defeated the Portuguese army. There was no bloodshed in this operation. The other Portuguese colonies of Daman and Diu were also recovered. Portuguese Governor General Manuel Anonia Vassalo da Silva surrendered.
Finally, Goa became an integral part of India on 19th December is celebrated as the Goa Liberation Day. “Union territory of Goa, Daman and Diu” was formed by adding the entire Portuguese colonies.