A lot of things fell, together in place and created a fertile ground for insurgency in Kashmir during the late 1980s. The 1987 assembly elections in Jammu and Kashmir were allegedly rigged in favor of Farooq Abdullah. This sparked a lot of protest and triggered the formation of Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF). 1989 was also the time when the Soviet Union withdrew from Afghanistan for good. A lot of arms and ammunition had been provided by the US to the Afghan-Pak region towards this end. End of Soviet occupation allowed a lot of these ammunitions to be deployed in Kashmir.
Pakistan had also realized that even the mighty Soviets could not occupy Afghanistan in the face of the Mujahideen resistance and was eager to deploy the same tactics against Indian Occupation of Kashmir.
There were insurgents in Kashmir in 60s, during all this time Kashmiris never resorted to violence and Kashmiri Pundits and Muslims lived in Kashmir together. With due course of time, Kashmir was getting suppressed between India and Pakistan who were in a state of cold war over it at all times.
The constitutional autonomy of Kashmir was not supported by certain elements in India. Some conspiracies began and Kashmir’s Prime Minister began talking to China, Pak etc. and would not act according to the whims of the Congress high command. In the background he was arrested and put in jail for 11 years. At the time of Congress rule, J&K Constitution was amended and many features were changed like Prime Minister became Chief Minister. Sadr-i-Riyasat became appointed Governor. This degradation of the autonomy of Kashmir was done by playing these politicians like puppets. Sheikh Abdullah was released after serving his time but Kashmiri’s had lost faith in democratic process.
In 1987 a party was formed by young Kashmiri’s and contested. The untold incidents followed during the core process of election and they were put in jail after that. They will be the first Kashmiri’s to go for arms training to Pakistan and imported the Jihadi movement which Pakistan was supporting against USSR at that time. They started fighting for independence of Kashmir. After that many lunatics also joined insurgency and it became a mix. There was a pro Pakistani element and a pro freedom element too. Pro pak came on top because of better funding.