Many Hindu movements started in the nineteenth century which led to fresh interpretations of ancient Hindu Scriptures with emphasis on social reform (also known as Hindu Renaissance). The main motivation of these movements was to counter the notion of western superiority. This gave rise to various organizations and individuals like,
- Brahmo Samaj: it was started by Raja Ram Mohan Roy with intent to rational modern India from Upanishadic texts.
- Arya Samaj: Arya Samaj is considered one Hindu renaissance movements of the late nineteenth centuty.
- Swami Vivekanand: He made Hindu spirituality, intellectually available to the Westernized audience.
- Sri Aurobindo Ghosh: He is famous for Chittagong uprising and was instrumental in forming Anushilan Samiti.
- Then we had the famous trio of Lal-Bal-Pal. Lala Lajpatrai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Bipin Chandra Pal were the foremost Hindu reformers of their times and took part in various Nationalist Movements.
However, the present day Hindu Nationalist movement in Maharashtra has their origin in the ideology of Hindutva put forth by Vinayak Damodar Savarkar. Savarkar coined the term Hindutva while still being in prison in Andaman. The birth of this term lies in the political situation at the time. The Muslim League in India had supported Khilafat movement against the fall of Ottoman Empire. Savarkar felt it was wrong on their part to put religion on higher priority rather than the nation.
The important event in Hindu Nationalist Movements in Maharashtra was the birth of RSS, which was started by Keshav Baliram Hedgewar in Nagpur. It took part in various activities for independence. After death of Hedgewar, Golwalker Guruji became the leader of RSS and has shaped the RSS ideology drafting its constitution. Many of these leaders were in awe of the German Nazi Movement.
Considering this brief history we can understand that Hindu National Movement has been a nationwide phenomenon and has leaders from various demographics of the country. Maharashtra has been at the centre of various movements because of its rich ideological heritage and many Marathi leaders have contributed immensely to Hindu National Movement as they have contributed to many others(Medha Patkar, Anna Hazare, Baba Amte have all contributed to various different social movements).So essentially Marathi people have contributed their fair share to this nation wide movement.