The birth of Meghalaya on January 21, 1972 is considered to be the culmination of a popular and non-violent Hill State Movement that can never be forgotten.
It was the then All Party Hill Leaders Conference, formed in July 1990, which had initiated the spearhead of the Hill State Movement in the idea of the leadership of Stalwarts like late Captain Williamson A. Sangma, who had also served as the very first Chief Minister of the Indian State of Meghalaya, late Brighton Buhai Lyngdoh, late Stanley D.D Nicholas Roy, late Hoover Hynniewta and many others.
As the Hills were then a composite Assam, the very much intensified on going agitation, where there was a demand or the drive for a separate state was further deepened by the decision of the Assam government to introduce Assamese as the state’s official language. On December 27, 1966, the official visit of then Prime Minister of India Indira Gandhi to Shillong, gave a sense of assurance to the people of hills, a promise that her government would fulfill the aspirations of the hill people. Meghalaya and other states of the Northeast were carved out of Assam after the Northeastern Re- organization act, 1971, was passed in the Parliament. However, it needs to be noted that there are many political scholars who still class Meghalaya as a state without proper demarcation and the boundary disputes with Assam remain unsolved and at a critical position till date.
There was an utmost need of the hour of filling up the political vacuum in the region, which led to the All Party Hill Leaders Conference came into existence. The start of the movement was a bit shaky and also questionable as the recruitments of important leaders were of them who had no political affiliation and even retired officers who were in the civil services.
For the very much newly born state Meghalaya, things were considered to be very important as in 1970s was termed as crucial for the newly born state and development of student organisations. This was primarily since 1952 to 1970, that the political demand of a separate statehood created the condition of group solidarity as the political strength in achieving the ends and from 1972 onwards, due to the influence of Parliamentary electoral politics at the local level along with party based politics created the conditions of power factional politics and divided political solidarity of the group.
The manifestation of such situations Was in the form of different types of permutations and combinations pf political forces.