Naga Movement is a sustained form of stratified and divided militancy that has its roots in pre-independence era. Naga people remained isolated and felt culturally different from rest of the India owing to the neglect of the British rule and policy of divide and rule opted by the empire.
As early as in 1920s a group formed as Naga Club demanded sovereignty and submitted its demands to Simon commission. After independence government of India proactively engaged with the Naga National Council (NNC) under AngmiPhizo and Governor Hydari strived hard to conclude an agreement with NNC which lasted for a small time and led to the beginning of insurgency under Phizo for separate Nagaland as a Nation. Although Naga insurgency remained constant phenomenon, its unity among groups was a serious impediment in negotiation process by government of India. Every time when any agreement came to conclusion various groups or factions used to disagree leading to only partial peace process.
Even after government of India’s peace mission and some breakthrough as Shillong agreement, factions of the NNC came out as Nationalist Socialist Council of Nagaland among others. Hence, Government must learn from the real nature of the Naga popular ambition and the bad intentions of Faction leaders who wanted to retain illegal control over some hilly areas.
Negotiating an agreement which satisfies all the major stakeholders will be critical in solving thisage old insurgency. The Heraka Movement which was a religious movement led by HaipouJadonang and his successor Rani Gaidinliu sought to establish the legendary kingdom of the Naga people during 1929-33. Apart from Naga National Council (NNC) movement, formation of Nagaland was also seen as a pro-active movement.
After a series of armed conflicts and peace missions, the government of India agreed to create the Naga Hills Tuensang Area (NHAT), a Union Territory with a large degree of autonomy. After further protests, violence and diplomatic discussions, the government recognized Nagaland as a full-fledged State within the Union of India. Since then the Naga nationalism has co-existed with Indian nationalism.