India is the first country to adopt Universal Adult Franchise System. Due to this factor it gave rise to multi party system.
The major recognized National political parties are
- Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP): – BJP is one of the two major political parties in India. Its founder member is Dr. Syama Prasad Mookerjee. This is said to be the party with a difference. Currently, it is the Ruling Party. It is considered the nationalist, right wing party. It has approximately 31% of the vote share. Ideologies followed are Hindutva, Hindu Nationalism, Integral humanism, Conservatism, National conservatism, Social conservatism, Economic nationalism, Right-wing populism.
- Indian National Congress (INC): – It is the main opposition party. It is considered centre-socialist wing party. It has about 19% of vote share. Under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, congress became the principal leader of the Indian Independence Movement. Ideologies followed are Social Democracy, Democratic Socialism, Social Liberalism, Indian nationalism, Gandhian socialism, Left-wing populism, secularism, Progressivism.
- Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP): – This is the Dalit socialist party. It had 4% vote share, but did not win a single parliament seat. It is considered to be the third largest national political party in India. This party mainly represents scheduled castes and scheduled tribes and other backward castes as well as religious minorities. Ideologies followed are Ambedkarism, Human Rights, Buddhism, Social Equality, Secularism, Social Justice, Self-Respect.
- Communist Party of India (Marxist): – this party is considered to be the traditional left-wing party. As of 2018, CPI (M) is leading the state government in Kerala and is leading West Bengal left front. Ideologies followed are Communism, Marxism-Leninism.
- Nationalist Congress Party (NCP): – This party is the splinter group from Indian National Congress party with center-socialist leaning with 1.38% vote share. Its youth wing is the Nationalist Youth Congress. Ideologies followed are Indian Nationalism, civic nationalism, social justice, social equality, socialism, secularism.
- Communist Party of India (CPI): – It is the left wing party which had its presence in couple of states. The CPI has about 0.78% of vote share. Ideologies followed are Marxism-Leninism.
Apart from these national parties, there are plethora of regional parties which are dominant in their respective states.
- All India Trinamool Congress (AITC): – The party is a breakaway faction of Indian National Congress which was formed 0n 1 January 1998. It has 3.8% of vote share in State of West Bengal. Ideologies followed are Regionalism, Nationalism, Secularism, Socialism, Anti-Communism.
- All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagm (AIADMK): – The base of the party is in Tamil Nadu and in the Union Territory of Puducherry. Currently in power in Tamil Nadu AIADMK, is the third largest party in the Lok Sabha. The vote share of this party is of 3.3%. Ideologies followed are Populism, Social Democracy.
- Samajwadi Party (SP): – The party is founded on 4 October 1992 and is based in northern state of India. The vote share of the party is of 3.2% in the state of Uttar Pradesh. Ideologies followed are Secularism, Democratic Socialism.
- Telugu Desam Party (TDP): – This regional political party is actively based in the southern part of India in the states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. The party has a vote share of 2.5%. Ideologies followed are Regionalism, conservatism, integral humanism, economic liberalism.
- Shiv Sena (SS): – The motive of origination of party was from a movement in Mumbai demanding preferential treatment for Maharashtrians over migrants in the city. Political cartoonist Bal Thackeray was the founder of Shiv Sena. The vote share of the party in Maharashtra is 1.9%. Ideologies followed are Hindutva, Hindu nationalism, Economic Nationalism, ultranationalism.
- Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK): – The party is active in the states of Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh. It has 1.8% of vote share. Ideologies followed are Social Democracy, Polpulism.
- Biju Janata Dal (BJD): – it’s based in Odisha as the party was founded on 26 December 1997. The vote share of the party is 1.7%. Ideologies followed are Populism, Social Liberalism, and Social Democracy Regionalism.
Akali Dal, Telangana Rashtra Samithi (TRS), Rashtriya Janata Dal(RJD), Janata Dal (United) JD(U), Jammu and Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party (PDP),Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) are notable mentions as they rule their respective states now.